Gastrointestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance under the interaction between the host,
GI tract, nutrition and energy metabolism. Glucose is the main energy source in living cells. Thus,
glucose metabolic disorders can impair normal cellular function and endanger organisms’ health.
Diseases that are associated with glucose metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension,
and other metabolic syndromes are in fact life threatening. Digestive system is responsible for food
digestion and nutrient absorption. It is also involved in neuronal, immune, and endocrine pathways.
In addition, the gut microbiota plays an essential role in initiating signal transduction, and communication
between the enteric and central nervous system. Gut-brain axis is composed of enteric neural
system, central neural system, and all the efferent and afferent neurons that are involved in signal
transduction between the brain and gut-brain. Gut-brain axis is influenced by the gut-microbiota as
well as numerous neurotransmitters. Properly regulated gut-brain axis ensures normal digestion, absorption,
energy production, and subsequently maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Understanding
the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gut-brain axis involved in gluose homeostasis would enable
us develop more efficient means of prevention and management of metabolic disease such as diabetic,
obesity, and hypertension.