Maintenance of Gastrointestinal Glucose Homeostasis by the Gut-Brain Axis

Author(s): Xiyue Chen, Shabnam Eslamfam, Luoyun Fang, Shiyan Qiao, Xi Ma*

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 18 , Issue 6 , 2017

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Graphical Abstract:


Gastrointestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance under the interaction between the host, GI tract, nutrition and energy metabolism. Glucose is the main energy source in living cells. Thus, glucose metabolic disorders can impair normal cellular function and endanger organisms’ health. Diseases that are associated with glucose metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other metabolic syndromes are in fact life threatening. Digestive system is responsible for food digestion and nutrient absorption. It is also involved in neuronal, immune, and endocrine pathways. In addition, the gut microbiota plays an essential role in initiating signal transduction, and communication between the enteric and central nervous system. Gut-brain axis is composed of enteric neural system, central neural system, and all the efferent and afferent neurons that are involved in signal transduction between the brain and gut-brain. Gut-brain axis is influenced by the gut-microbiota as well as numerous neurotransmitters. Properly regulated gut-brain axis ensures normal digestion, absorption, energy production, and subsequently maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gut-brain axis involved in gluose homeostasis would enable us develop more efficient means of prevention and management of metabolic disease such as diabetic, obesity, and hypertension.

Keywords: Endocrine-immune, glucose homeostasis, gut-brain axis, intestine, microbes.

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Article Details

Year: 2017
Page: [541 - 547]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1389203717666160627083604
Price: $65

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