Dry eye disease (DED) is a tear film disorder resulting in hyperosmolarity of the
tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. DED is also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis
sicca (KCS) and dry eye syndrome. DED represents a significant public health issue,
particularly in older adults, and needs more research and attention. Despite the urgent need
for safe and effective pharmacotherapies, there is currently only one approved medication,
Restasis®, to tackle DED. In this review article, we present an overview of DED, classification,
epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and risk factors of DED. Special emphasis
is placed on current treatment options for DED such as artificial tears, lipid-containing lubricants,
liposomal spray, inserts, anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant drops, antibiotics,
dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids, autologous serum, intense-pulsed-light (IPL),
punctual plugs, moisture-retaining eyeglasses, hydrophilic bandage contact lenses and secretagogues.
The review also summarizes trends in DED treatment that are patented and are
currently under investigation in clinical trials.