Background: The conventional hydraulic dampers have limited adaptability
to the variation frequency and amplitude of incident load for minimisation of the
transmissibility to the structures. The active type dampers have the limitations in
terms of power pack requirement and stability of control. Therefore the semi active
dampers of ER/MR type are attractive contenders for the design of dampers.
Method: An overview of ER/MR damper designs and modelling has been presented
with an introduction to underlying principles and the key technological challenges.
The overview of designs of ER/MR dampers envisages Poiseuille flow type, Couette
type and multitube dampers in a morphological manner. As per the published works
the optimisation methodology of damper actuators is presently based on volume
constrained optimisation. The overview of modelling techniques covers phenomenological models and
fluid dynamics models.
Results: The phenomenological models predict the damper behaviour with good accuracies however the
review paper emphasises the need for further research on transient model as the model gives a closer
agreement with the experimental results. Some of the phenomenological models are based on fitting
piecewise functions to the experimental data for predicting force velocity damper response. Such models
pose difficulty in terms of determining inverse model for the control of ER/MR damper. The stability
of phenomenological models in direct and inverse mode for high speed applications needs to be explored.
Conclusion: The transient model with improved solution techniques and modelling of body forces can
accurately predict the damper response at all operating speeds. The quasi-static and transient models are
amenable for their application in direct and inverse mode.