Infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) are a major
cause of deaths worldwide. These intracellular pathogens regulate the innate immune
response allowing for pathogen survival, persistence and further transmission.
Nanoparticles provide an opportunity for the targeted delivery of immune modulating
signals to host cells, harnessing the innate immune system to eradicate infection. In
this review, we briefly present key aspects of HIV-1 and TB innate immunity, and
review the capability of nanomedicines in modulating the action of the innate immune
system. We conclude that while several studies have provided the proof of concept of
the immunomodulatory ability of nanoparticle systems, additional characterization is
required to facilitate the translation to the clinic of a nanomedicine approach to these
Keywords: HIV-1, TB, macrophage, targeted nanoparticle, immunotherapy, HIV-1 viral reservoir purging.
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