Coronary CT angiography has been increasingly used to diagnose coronary artery disease
with high diagnostic value achieved. For further assessment of coronary lumen stenosis, coronary
CT angiography allows characterization of coronary plaques in terms of plaque morphology
and composition. Coronary plaques are commonly assessed on 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted
images. However, these visualization tools are limited to viewing extraluminal changes in the
coronary artery but fail to provide intraluminal appearances of the coronary wall due to presence of
plaques. In this pictorial essay, we present various intraluminal appearances of coronary wall and
plaques with use of 3D virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) visualization in relation to different
types of plaques. VIE appearances of coronary stents in patients treated with coronary stenting are
also briefly demonstrated to show both normal stents and in-stent restenosis.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease, coronary CT angiography, plaque, virtual intravascular endoscopy, visualization.
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