DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown
to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as
glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β -cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately
leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences
indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview
of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these
factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is
provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better
management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the
development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation
at the molecular level is still needed.
Keywords: DNA methylation, T2DM, epigenetics, risk factors, methods, gene.
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