Background: Osteosarcopenic obesity, the combined deterioration of bone, muscle and fat
tissues, could become the ultimate trajectory of aging. Aging stem cells are deregulated by low-grade
chronic inflammation and possibly by diet. The metabolic shift of stem cells towards adipogenesis
results in osteo obesity, sarco obesity and obesity. Macronutrients have numerous physiological
functions but are regarded mainly for their energy contribution. Currently, no nutritional causes or
treatment/prevention guidelines exist for osteosarcopenic obesity.
Objective: The aim of this review is to assemble the evidence to elucidate if the macronutrient composition
of the Western diet has an effect on the development of osteosarcopenic obesity. In view of
the role of brain in locomotion a section examining the macronutrients as possible modulators of
brain functioning was included.
Method: An extensive literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted for human data using
combinations and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and energy, carbohydrate, protein
and lipid, and brain. US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food
intake data from 2002-2012 were obtained and transposed to Microsoft Excel for analysis.
Results: NHANES data showed that energy imbalances in aging, excess high glycemic carbohydrate,
lower protein intakes and low long chain polyunsaturated fat intakes may contribute to osteosarcopenic
obesity. 135 articles were included in the review.
Conclusion: Early humans probably consumed a diet closer to what the human body was designed
for; however, we do not know the ideal energy and macronutrient proportions for optimal health or
for preventing/treating aging and osteosarcopenic obesity.