Background: Aging, chronic inflammation and/or many chronic conditions
may result in loss of bone, loss of muscle and increased adiposity, manifested
either overtly (overweight) or furtively as fat infiltration into bone and
muscle. This combined condition has been identified as osteosarcopenic obesity.
Micronutrients are required, not just to prevent deficiency diseases, but for optimal
health and metabolic homeostasis. Further, micronutrients have multifunctional
roles in the body. However, it is unknown if the micronutrient intake of the
Western diet contributes to bone and muscle loss, increased adiposity, and ultimately
Objective: The aim of this review is to examine the micronutrient intake using US
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, and explore if the insufficiencies,
or excesses present contribute to the development of osteosarcopenic obesity in aging.
Method: First NHANES food intake data from 2002-2012 were obtained and transposed to Microsoft
Excel for analysis. A literature search of PubMed and Medline for human data using combinations
and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and each mineral and vitamin indicated
as insufficient by NHANES.
Results: NHANES data suggested phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and vitamins
B6/B12/C/A/D/E and K were candidates for further evaluation. 170 articles were included.
Conclusion: While chronic single/multiple micronutrient insufficiency/excess is not studied in clinical
trials, NHANES data suggest that they have existed for at least a decade. Examining the status
and roles of those nutrients may be important to understanding the health issues associated with
Western-type diets, including development of osteosarcopenic obesity.