Advanced Topics on Three-dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology is a comprehensive and handy guide for sonographers, obstetricians, gynecology and radiology professionals, and all ...
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Uterine Anomalies by Three-dimensional Ultrasound

Pp. 239-257 (19)

Adilson Cunha Ferreira


Müllerian anomalies are congenital defects of the female reproductive tract resulting from failure in the development of the Müllerian ducts and their associated structures. Uterine anomalies are uncommon and are discovered during the investigation of infertility or premature delivery. The most common müllerian anomaly is the septate uterus. Identification of the septate uterus depends on the identification of a flat, rounded, or minimally (<1 cm) concave uterine fundus. Hysterosalpingography identifies two uterine cavities but is inaccurate for diagnosis of septate versus bicornuate uterus. Hematocolpos is often caused by an obstructing vaginal septum, usually in association with uterus didelphys. Three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are both highly accurate tests for the diagnosis of a Müllerian anomaly. MRI is the preferred test because the large field of view demonstrates renal anomalies.


Embryonic development, Gynecology, Infertility, Laparoscopy, Müllerian ducts, Urogenital abnormalities.


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