Advanced Topics on Three-dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology is a comprehensive and handy guide for sonographers, obstetricians, gynecology and radiology professionals, and all ...
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Assessment of Fetal Heart by Three- and Four- Dimensional Ultrasound

Pp. 63-72 (10)

Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini


The aim of this review was to determine whether three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography adds diagnostic information to what is currently provided by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of the most common congenital structural defects, namely congenital heart disease. Recent studies suggested that 3D/4D US allows to decrease operator dependency in the visualization of standard diagnostic planes, thus reducing the examination time required for the ultrasound screening examination, with minimal consequences on the imaging quality of the anatomical structures. Furthermore, sonographers with lack of experience may acquire cardiac volumes that can be successfully reviewed offline locally or sent by internet to referral centers for remote review by an observer with more experience. As a consequence 3D/4D US promises to become the method of choice for the diagnosis of congenital structural defects.


Congenital heart diseases, Four-dimensional ultrasound, Ultrasound, Prenatal diagnosis, Three-dimensional ultrasound.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universita Roma Tor Vergata, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, Rome, Italy.