Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all adult malignancies and
is associated with a case fatality rate as high as 40%. RCC has been on the rise for the last 6 decades
at a steady increase of 2% per annum. Much work has been done to uncover the pathogenesis of the
disease and the role of angiogenesis has been a recurrent denominator connected to vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) and its downstream effectors along with the mammalian target of rapamycin
(mTOR) mediated signal transduction pathway.
Objective: This review will discuss relevant inhibitors of key biomarkers to the disease in hopes of
paving the way for novel treatments geared towards improving RCC morbidity and mortality rates.
Results and Conclusion: Currently, treatment of advanced RCC includes one or more of the following:
partial or radical nephrectomy, systemic therapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy. Still
drug resistance continues to be a challenge to many of the approved drugs and those undergoing
clinical trials. However, the inclusion of targeted therapies has improved advanced RCC treatment
success rates over that of surgery alone, and over that of the use of traditional chemotherapy for this
relatively chemo-resistant disease. In an era of personalized medicine, research utilizing a polypharmacology
approach could enhance efficacy of drug leads to treating RCC.