Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in the Assessment of Enantioselective Toxicity of Chiral Pesticides

Author(s): Xiaoqing Ye, Ying Liu, Feixue Li

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 18 , Issue 1 , 2017


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Abstract:

Background: In biological systems, the individual stereoisomers of chiral substances possess significantly different biochemical properties because the specific structure-activity relationships are required for a common site on biomolecules. In the past decade, there has been increasing concern over the enantioselective toxicity of environmental chiral pollutants, especially chiral pesticides. Different responses and activities of a pair of enantiomers of chiral pesticides were often observed. Therefore, assessment of the enantioselective toxicological properties of chiral pesticides is a prerequisite in application of single-isomer products and particularly important for environmental protection. The development of biomarkers that can predict enantioselective effects from chiral pesticides has recently been gained more and more attention. The biomarkers of oxidative stress have become a topic of significant interest for toxic assessments.

Methods: In this review, we summarized current knowledge and advances in the understanding of enantiomeric oxidative processes in biological systems in response to chiral pesticides.

Results: The consistent results in two types of chiral insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids and organochlorine pesticides) showed the significant difference in cytotoxicity of enantiomers, suggesting the antioxidant enzymes are reliable biomarkers for the assessment of toxicity of chiral chemicals. Results indicate that antioxidant enzymes are sensitive and valid biomarkers to assess the oxidative damage caused by chiral herbicides. In addition, it can be inferred that the enantioselectivity of chiral herbicides on antioxidant enzymes exists in other species. Compared with insecticides and herbicides, researches about the enantioselectivity of oxidative stress caused by chiral fungicides are quite limited. Only two kinds of chiral fungicides has been used to study the enantioselectivity of oxidative stress by now.

Conclusion: The current knowledge that enantioselective processes of oxidative damage occur in organisms or cells extends toxicological studies of environmental contamination by chiral chemicals. These studies indicate that oxidative biomarkers can be useful for monitoring enantioselective toxicity of chiral contaminates, while comparing enantiomer-induced responses in different species should be approached with caution because of differences in uptake, target sites, biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers.

Keywords: Chiral pesticides, enantioselectivity, oxidative stress, antioxidants.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2017
Published on: 09 November, 2016
Page: [33 - 40]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1389203717666160413124654
Price: $65

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