Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants

Author(s): Ying Zhang, Jing Ye, Min Liu

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 18 , Issue 1 , 2017


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Abstract:

Background: Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites.

Methods: Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed.

Results: Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs. Enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs is dependent on enzyme amounts and activities. However, the role of cytochrome P450 in enantioselective biotransformation has not yet been confirmed.

Conclusion: Currently available data on biotransformation of chiral POPs provide a preliminary understanding of the fate of chiral compounds in organisms. Further detailed studies of species-dependent biotransformation pathway and molecular mechanism in various animal models should be performed to comprehensively understand chiral POP biotransformation.

Keywords: Biotransformation, chiral, cytochrome P450, enantioselectivity, in vivo, persistent organic pollutants.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2017
Published on: 09 November, 2016
Page: [48 - 56]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1389203717666160413124027
Price: $65

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