Administration of oxytocin has been proposed as a treatment for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder
(ASD), including social-communicative deficit. Previous clinical trials have investigated the efficacy and safety of
oxytocin intranasal single-dose and long-term administration for individuals with ASD. All studies suggest that singledose
and long-term administration are well tolerated, and no severe adverse events have been reported. However, the efficacy
of long-term oxytocin administration is controversial. Some studies have reported significant improvement of the
core symptoms of ASD by long-term oxytocin administration, while other studies showed no such improvement. To elucidate
the factors influencing the efficacy of oxytocin administration, it is necessary to examine the effects of administration
schedules (e.g., dosage amount, frequency per day) and participant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, intellectual ability).
In addition to doubts about the efficacy of particular methods of administration, questions remain about the mechanism of
action of intranasal oxytocin on the central nervous system. Examination of changes in the neural underpinnings of social
behavior and simultaneous oxytocin levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid could prove important in elucidating the pharmacokinetics
of intranasal oxytocin administration, which could be essential for establishing optimal oxytocin treatments
for individuals with ASD.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, long-term administration, open-label trial, oxytocin, randomized controlled trials, single-
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