Acute renal failure (ARF) represents a severe complication of malignancies,
that causes significant morbidity and mortality. ARF is a common part
of multiple organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with cancer with reported
mortality rates from 72% to 85% in patients who need renal replacement therapy.
The pathways leading to ARF in cancer patients are common to the development
of ARF in other conditions. However, certain factors leading to the development
of ARF may be associated to the tumor or to the tumor therapy. The
purpose of this review is to give specific aspects of renal disease in critically ill
cancer patients (CICPs), to overview the causes of ARF in CICPs and to describe
recent progress in the management of these complications, including
treatment toxicity and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The prevention of ARF is obligatory
and therefore the possible treatments of ARF in CICPs are also discussed.
Keywords: Acute renal failure, tumor lysis syndrome, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), multiple myeloma, lymphoma.
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