Nucleotides, peptides and proteins are attracting much attention nowadays as
therapeutic drugs, because of their potential in treating chronic diseases such as allergies,
infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, the extreme in vivo environment
of human body limits the therapeutic applications of these substances. The efficacy of
nucleotides can be enhanced by loading them onto nanoparticles before introducing them
in the body. Nanoparticle assisted delivery may be a promising approach to alleviate the
problem of instability and degradation of nucleotides. The polymeric nanoparticles have
gained much attention as in vivo delivery systems due to their ability in overcoming the
physiological barriers, protecting and targeting the loaded drugs to their specific location.
Among various naturally occurring polymers such as cyclodextrins, emulsions, ceramics,
gold shell nanoparticles; chitosan has gained more attention as drug delivery carrier.
Various properties such as bactericidal, biocompatibility, low toxicity, etc make chitosan a
valuable carrier and thus, it has numerous applications in the pharmaceutical field. This
review summarizes some of these findings and highlights the potential of chitosan as a
carrier for delivering nucleic acids.