Background: Parasitic infection such as leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, presents
a significant global burden which is responsible for high mortality rate especially in less developed
countries. Its intracellular nature and disseminated locations of parasite, limited number of chemotherapeutic
agents, increasing incidences of resistance to first line drugs and toxicities, pose a great
challenge to formulation scientists that have necessitated effective management of leishmanial infection
by modulating the delivery of existing drugs. Over the past decade, research on development of
alternative treatments such as nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nanoparticles, nanosuspensions,
liposomes etc.), use of natural products as well as development of antileishmanial vaccine
has been extensively investigated.
Objective: The present review focuses on different facets of therapeutic strategies, existing miscellaneous
drug delivery systems and approaches intended for management, as well as treatment of the infection,
with an objective to summarize the current trends and strategies adopted for antileishmanial
therapy in a systematic manner. Moreover, the article encloses an eclectic collection of patents allied
to new-fangled chemotherapeutics for antileishmanial therapy.
Conclusion: The reported miscellaneous novel drug delivery systems along with the diverse approaches
are seem to be precise, secure and relatively effective; and in an outcome, could lead to the
new track for management of leishmaniasis.