Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a silent epidemic with a continuously growing
prevalence around the world. Due to uremia many functional and morphological abnormalities occur in almost
all systems. Mostly affected, the cardiovascular system, leads to diminished cardiac function that affects patients’
functional capacity and physical activity levels, reducing survival and increasing all-cause mortality. Systematic
exercise training ameliorates uremia induced body deficits and significantly improves the survival of CKD patients.
Intradialytic exercise training has been recommended as a complementary therapeutic modality equally important
to hemodialysis. Methods: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding
of how exercise training improves functionality of the cardiovascular system through the hemodynamic
changes induced by habitual or intradialytic and/or home-based exercise training programs. Results: Systematic exercise
training induces beneficial adaptive responses and influences many sensitive physiological biomarkers, such as oxidative stress
biomarkers that are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Additionally, exercise training decreases the cardiovascular risk by
improving the autonomic nervous system activity and the left ventricular function and by reducing nontraditional risk factors such as
epicardial adipose tissue. It seems that all these central and peripheral adaptations to exercise training significantly contribute to improvements
in functional capacity and exercise tolerance among CKD patients and result in the risk reduction of CKD-associated disorders.
Conclusion: Exercise training could serve as a complimentary therapeutic strategy in CKD patients while health care providers
should motivate patients to engage in any type of exercise training programs.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, exercise training, uremia, habitual physical activity, intradialytic training, home-based exercise.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport