Background: Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental
and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to
the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy.
Methods: Six circular interactions among seven actors (grain farmers, bread producers, retailers, compostable
packaging manufacturers, insect breeders, livestock farmers, consumers) of the circular filière
are created in order to achieve the goal of “zero waste”. In the model, two radical technological innovations are considered:
insects used as animal feed and polylactic acid compostable packaging.
Results: The main challenges for the implementation of the new supply chain are identified. Finally, some recent patents
related to bread sustainable production, investigated in the current paper, are considered.
Conclusion: Recommendations are given to academics and practitioners interested in the bio-based circular economy
model approach for transforming agri-food supply chains.