Background: Over the past few decades, the field of nanotechnology has led to significant advances in
healthcare, impacting both diagnosis and therapy. Systemic delivery of therapeutics via inhalation route has also advanced
with the use of sub micron particles as colloidal drug carriers. Use of inhalable nanocarriers for delivering
drugs systemically offers additional degree of control and manipulation, thereby maximizing the alveolar deposition
and minimizing clearance. The ramifications are improved systemic absorption and higher therapeutic efficacy.
Herein, we review the progress and advances related to nanoparticle based inhalable formulations for systemic delivery
of therapeutics, and also discusses the associated challenges. Methods: We performed detailed searches in PubMed
and compiled the literature on inhalable nanoparticles for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents. Results: To date,
multiple inhalable nanocarriers have been explored for systemic delivery of therapeutics; and can be broadly classified
into three categories, viz. lipid based nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and porous nanoparticle aggregate particles. Conclusion: In spite
of the promising data, there are still multiple challenges, including poor understanding of nanotoxicology of therapeutic nanoparticles. Overcoming
these challenges can lead to successful clinical translation of inhalable nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery, leading to the development
of more effective and patient compliant therapies.
Keywords: Nanoparticle, aerosol, drug delivery, inhalation, liposomes, polymers.
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