Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom Disease is a common, but frequently under-
recognized and misdiagnosed condition seen in many subspecialty practices including neurology,
sleep medicine, primary care and rheumatology. Periodic limb movements are a frequent co-morbid
diagnosis in RLS. Despite prior beliefs that the condition was “benign”, it has been demonstrated to
have a considerable impact on sufferers quality of life, physically and psychologically, as well as socially.
This chapter is meant as a comprehensive review of RLS encompassing epidemiology, pathophysiology,
diagnosis, and treatment considerations.