The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) worldwide imposes a
rethinking of individualized therapy for patients with both conditions. Central to bidirectional links between DM
and CP is deregulated systemic inflammation and dysfunctional immune responses to altered-self and non-self.
Control of blood glucose levels and metabolic imbalances associated with hyperglycemia in DM, and disruption of
pathogenic subgingival biofilms in CP are currently the main therapeutic approaches for these conditions. Mounting
evidence suggests the need to integrate immune modulatory therapeutics in treatment regimens that address the
unresolved inflammation associated with DM and CP. The current review discusses the pathogenesis of DM and
CP with emphasis on deregulated inflammation, current therapeutic approaches and the novel pro-resolution lipid
mediators derived from -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, periodontitis, inflammation, lipid mediators, pro-resolution therapeutics.
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