Background: Radiological contamination is the presence of the unwanted radioactive
material in the form of dust, particle or liquid droplets. Several macro-formulations
and nano-formulations have been developed for skin decontamination. These includes simple
soap solutions, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) & Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)
lotion formulations and p-tertbutylcalixarene Nanoemulsion. Rapid, sensitive and specific techniques need
to be employed for evaluation of decontamination efficacy of such formulations.
Objective: Current review highlights the various technologies available for the evaluation of the efficacy of
Macro- and Nano-formulations for removal of radiological contamination from skin. These include Whole
Body Counting (WBC), Gamma Scintigraphy, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
(AES) and ICP- Mass Spectroscopy (MS).
Method: Contamination of selected skin patch of experimental animal with radioactive compounds and its
subsequent decontamination using cotton swaps dipped in formulation following swirling motion, and mounting
of rat skin on Franz cells, was employed in these studies.
Conclusion: There are several techniques available for the evaluation of the decontamination efficacy of the
topical formulations. These techniques are based on the qualitative/quantitative estimation of radionuclides
and the evaluation of the sequestering/complexation capability of the formulation on the skin. There is a need
to adopt suitable technique for the evaluation of the external/internal contamination with respect to addressing
the issue of decontamination efficacy evaluation and incorporation of radioactivity inside the body.