Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of colorectal cancer. This tumor is characterized
by high chemoresistance and low immunogenicity due to the effective mechanisms of immunosuppression.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in recognition of tumor antigens and induction of T-cell-primed anticancer
response. However, in cancer microenvironment, the function of tumor-infiltrating DCs becomes impaired and switched from the
immunostimulation to the immunosuppression. Colorectal cancer cells express anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β that
could affect DC phenotype and support tumor escape from the immune surveillance. As a result, tumor-associated DCs display numerous
defects in antigen-presenting capacity and have an altered pattern of expression of immune costimulatory molecules towards the immunoregulatory
phenotype. Indeed, understanding of mechanisms, such as how tumor could impair activity of DCs, would help in the
development of new DC-based vaccines against colorectal cancer.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer, dendritic cells, immune reactions, therapeutic approaches.
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