Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: State of the Art

Author(s): M. Moreno, M. H. Amaral, J. M. Sousa Lobo, A. C. Silva

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 18 , 2016

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Nowadays, millions of people worldwide are affected by problems of bones and articulations. These conditions represent about a half of the chronic diseases developed in individuals over 50 years, leading to problems of prolonged pain and physical inability, which usually require surgery, where bone grafts or implants are used. Nonetheless, despite the success of these therapeutic solutions, some drawbacks have been pointed out, related with the risk of developing infections after implant application within the body. Moreover, grafts are associated to pain, infection, tissue death at the donor site and immunological rejection.

To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has an important role that constitutes a promising area for repair and rebuild bone lesions, through the development of three-dimensional (3D) porous matrices, commonly known as scaffolds. Associated with these structures are mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors, which lead to the formation of new bone by stimulating the natural regeneration ability of the patient's tissue.

In this review, we address the most important methodologies and concepts regarding tissue engineering for the replacement of bone tissue. The concept of scaffold, and examples of different types of scaffolds and their respective production methods are presented. In vitro and in vivo techniques to evaluate the suitability of scaffolds for human use are discussed. In addition, some of the most recent studies regarding the application of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are described.

Keywords: Scaffolds, tissue engineering, bone, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, growth factors.

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Article Details

Year: 2016
Published on: 04 May, 2016
Page: [2726 - 2736]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160203114902
Price: $65

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