Phytotherapy in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension

Volume: 2

Indexed in: Book Citation Index, Science (BKCI-S), Scopus, BIOSIS Previews, EBSCO.

Phytotherapy has the potential to give patients long term benefits with less or no side effects. This is the second volume of the series. This volume brings 11 chapters that cover updates on general ...
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Silymarin and Its Impact on Diabetes

Pp. 175-193 (19)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681081618116020011

Author(s): Hassan Malekinejad, Aysa Rezabakhsh


Silymarin (SMN) is a complex mixture of flavonolignans extracted from seeds of the milk thistle (Silybummarianum). Traditionally, SMN has been used as a natural remedy for digestive problems and in particular for diseases of the liver and the biliary tract, for menstrual disorders and varicose veins. Other potential indications of SMN are related to its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties demonstrated predominantly in in vitro assays. During the last years there are increasing data indicating beneficial effects of SMN on diabetes-induced negative impacts on tissues including the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Moreover, since the liver and kidneys are acting as the major organs which are biotransforming the xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, therefore any disorder in the function of aforementioned organs could be critical in diabetic patients. Therefore, in this chapter, we introduced SMN, its physicchemical properties, pharmacological effects and traditional uses. Our results from the last ten years about SMN protective and regulatory effects on drug and xenobiotic biotransforming enzymes in experimentally-induced diabetic animals are also discussed. Influence of SMN on pharmacokinetics of other concurrently administered antidiabetic drugs will be highlighted. Ultimately, its beneficial effects on diabeticinduced oxidative and nitrosative stress, histopathological injuries and biochemical markers in the liver, pancreas and kidneys are updated.


Diabetes, oxidative/nitrosative stress, protective effects, silymarin, regulative effects.