This review is focused on the combination of biomaterials with stem cells
as a promising strategy for bone, liver and skin regeneration. At first, we describe
stem cell-based constructs for bone tissue engineering with special attention to recent
advanced approaches based on the use of biomaterial scaffolds with renewable stem
cells that have been used for bone regeneration. We illustrate the strategies to improve
liver regeneration by using liver stem cells and biomaterials and/or devices as therapeutic
approaches. In particular, examples of biomaterials in combination with other
technologies are presented since they allow the differentiation of stem cells in hepatocytes.
After a description of the role and the benefit of MSCs in wound repair and in
skin substitutes we highlight the suitability of biomaterials in guiding stem cell differentiation
for skin regeneration and cutaneous repair in both chronic and acute wounds.
Finally, an overview of the types of bioreactors that have been developed for the differentiation of stem
cells and are currently in use, is also provided. The examples of engineered microenvironments reported
in this review indicate that a detailed understanding of the various factors and mechanisms that control the
behavior of stem cells in vivo has provided useful information for the development of advanced bioartificial
systems able to control cell fate.
Keywords: Biomaterials, bioreactors, bone regeneration, liver regeneration, membranes, skin regeneration, Stem cells, tissue
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