Gluten intolerance is an umbrella term for gluten-related disorders manifested in health
decline as a result of the gluten ingestion. The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes three
major groups: autoimmune (mainly, Celiac Disease, CD, also known as Celiac Sprue, dermatitis
herpetiformis, or gluten-sensitive ataxia), allergic (wheat allergy, WA), and non-autoimmune
non-allergic (non-celiac gluten sensitivity, NCGS, or gluten sensitivity, GS). Pathogenesis and
diagnostics of CD and WA are well established in contrast to NCGS, pathogenicity of which is
still poorly understood and its symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed since most of the NCGS
cases are currently identified via the process of CD and WA exclusion. By now, the only one
proven effective way for CD treatment is gluten-free diet (GFD). However, such an increasingly gaining popularity diet is apparently unsuitable
for NCGS treatment because in this case gluten does not always arise as the major or exclusive culprit of gastrointestinal disorder.
Furthermore, it is some physicians’ opinion that GFD can be deficient in fiber and in other vitamins and minerals. In many cases,
GFD is commercially inaccessible for the most needy, whereas strict adherence to the diet is complicated by the presence of small
amounts of the gluten components in some foods and even medicines. In this regard, a number of research groups and pharmaceutical
companies are extensively developing alternative medicinal approaches to GFD for effective gluten intolerance treatment. This review
summarizes our understanding of gluten-related disorders, possible mechanisms of gluten intolerance activation and advantages of gluten
intolerance medicinal treatment using novel drug candidates obtained with a proper pharmaceutical design.