Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, result from a
dysregulated inflammatory response to environmental factors in genetically predisposed individuals.
The list of genetic factors involved in the development of these diseases has considerably increased in
last years. However, recently, new promising insights on inflammatory bowel diseases have been produced
by studies on microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small non coding RNA molecules, that play a pivotal
role in gene expression and regulation. They are involved in many biological processes, such as cellular
proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction and, more recently, they have been recognized as
also having a role in the innate and adaptative response. In this review we give an overview on the role
of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.