Molecular Targets for Small-Molecule Modulators of Circadian Clocks

Author(s): Baokun He, Zheng Chen

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Volume 17 , Issue 5 , 2016

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Abstract:

Background: Circadian clocks are endogenous timing systems that regulate various aspects of mammalian metabolism, physiology and behavior. Traditional chronotherapy refers to the administration of drugs in a defined circadian time window to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic and therapeutic efficacies. In recent years, substantial efforts have been dedicated to developing novel small-molecule modulators of circadian clocks.

Methods: Here, we review the recent progress in the identification of molecular targets of small-molecule clock modulators and their efficacies in clock-related disorders. Specifically, we examine the clock components and regulatory factors as possible molecular targets of small molecules, and we review several key clock-related disorders as promising venues for testing the preventive/therapeutic efficacies of these small molecules. Finally, we also discuss circadian regulation of drug metabolism.

Results: Small molecules can modulate the period, phase and/or amplitude of the circadian cycle. Core clock proteins, nuclear hormone receptors, and clock-related kinases and other epigenetic regulators are promising molecular targets for small molecules. Through these targets small molecules exert protective effects against clock-related disorders including the metabolic syndrome, immune disorders, sleep disorders and cancer. Small molecules can also modulate circadian drug metabolism and response to existing therapeutics.

Conclusion: Small-molecule clock modulators target clock components or diverse cellular pathways that functionally impinge upon the clock. Target identification of new small-molecule modulators will deepen our understanding of key regulatory nodes in the circadian network. Studies of clock modulators will facilitate their therapeutic applications, alone or in combination, for clock-related diseases.

Keywords: Circadian clock, drug metabolism, metabolic syndrome, molecular target, nuclear receptor, small-molecule modulator.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2016
Published on: 24 March, 2016
Page: [503 - 512]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1389200217666160111124439
Price: $65

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