Time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering methods beyond photoactivation: Utilizing high-flux X-ray sources for the study of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins

Author(s): Rohit Jain, Simone Techert

Journal Name: Protein & Peptide Letters

Volume 23 , Issue 3 , 2016


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Abstract:

X-ray scattering technique, comprising of small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques is increasingly used to characterize the structure and interactions of biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution. It is a method of choice to characterize the flexible, partially folded and unfolded protein systems. X-ray scattering is the last resort for proteins that cannot be investigated by crystallography or NMR and acts as a complementary technique with different biophysical techniques to answer challenging scientific questions. The marriage of the X-ray scattering technique with the fourth dimension “time” yields structural dynamics and kinetics information for protein motions in hierarchical timescales from picoseconds to days. The arrival of the high-flux X-ray beam at third generation synchrotron sources, exceptional X-ray optics, state-of-the-art detectors, upgradation of X-ray scattering beamlines with microfluidics devices and advanced X-ray scattering data analysis procedures are the important reasons behind the shining years of X-ray scattering technique. The best days of the X-ray scattering technique are on the horizon with the advent of the nanofocus X-ray scattering beamlines and fourth generation X-ray lightsources, i.e., free electron lasers (XFELs). Complementary to the photon-triggered time-resolved X-ray scattering techniques, we will present an overview of the time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering techniques for structural dynamics of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins.

Keywords: Biocatalysis, Free electron laser, Guanylate kinase, Microfluidics, Protein dynamics, Protein folding-unfolding, Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Structural Dynamics, Time-resolved X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS/TR-WAXS), Wideangle X-ray scattering (WAXS), X-rays.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2016
Page: [242 - 254]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/0929866523666160106153847
Price: $65

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