Comprehensive Practical Hepatology

Acute and chronic liver disease is a global endemic healthcare concern. More than 500 million people around the world are infected with the hepatitis B or C virus. Approximately 500,000 patients die ...
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Symptoms and Signs Suggestive of Liver Disease

Pp. 3-27 (25)

Masami Minemura


Patients without advanced or severe liver disease may not display any signs or symptoms specific for liver diseases. Careful record of medical history may play an important role in diagnosing these patients. More advanced liver disease may present with symptoms such as fatigue, pruritus, abdominal fullness, and/or muscle cramps. Jaundice, ascites, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, dilated abdominal wall veins, asterixis (encephalopathy), spider angiomata, and palmar erythema on physical examination may also suggest advanced liver diseases.


Family history, liver disease, medical history, physical findings, signs, symptoms.


The Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.