The objective of the study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of
Methotrexate (MTX)-loaded chitosan (CS) on LNCaP prostate cancer cell line in vitro.
For this purpose, CS nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through ionic gelation method and
MTX was loaded into the carrier with encapsulation. SEM images of the CS NPs have revealed
that they have size of about 85 nm in mono-disperse manner. Drug loading yield was found to
be 95.7 % with 470 μg drug/mg NP loading capacity. In vitro drug release study showed that
MTX was released in a controlled manner. Cell viability was detected by using trypan blue dye
exclusion test and WST-1 cell proliferation assay was performed to show cytotoxic effects of
the CS, the MTX and the MTX-loaded NP. IC50 values of CS, MTX and MTX-loaded NPs were
assigned from the cell survival plot and were determined as 67.18 μM, 20.21 μM and 2.94 μM at
the 72nd hour, respectively. As for apoptosis analysis results, following to MTX-loaded CS
treatment of LNCAP cells, apoptotic cell percent was detected as 39.3 % at the 72nd hour, that is,
MTX-loaded CS induces 1.85-fold increase in apoptotic cell percent in comparison with that of MTX- induced apoptosis.