Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs available in the market suffer from side-effects like
gastric ulceration, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, etc. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been developed
to reduce the side-effects, but unfortunately suffer from severe cardiovascular toxicity. As a result,
several selective COX-2 inhibitors have been withdrawn from the market. Thus to improve the efficacy
with reduced side-effects many strategies were developed. The free carboxylic group of the
NSAIDs was modified into various acid derivatives to reduce gastric ulceration. Modifications of the
existing anti-inflammatory drugs were carried out by various research groups so that the efficacy of the
drugs improves along with selectivity. This review covers changes and structural modifications of
various anti-inflammatory agents. Synthesis of various derivatives of NSAIDs was reported in the literature review. The
article also summarizes the synthesis of the molecules using microwave assisted synthesis. Computational studies (i.e.
QSAR and Docking analysis) along with information about various novel moieties acting against reported inflammation is
also discussed in the article.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents, docking, microwave assisted synthesis, NSAIDs, QSAR, synthesis of COX-2 inhibitors.
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