Myocarditis, which is commonly known as heart inflammation, is a multifaceted disease that includes at least three phases.
The host’s immune system is mostly active during the first viral and the second autoimmune phase, when several inflammatory pathways
are activated. One of the pivotal transcription factors that regulate immune responses is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). If, on one
side, the acute response to heart injury activates the production of inflammatory cytokines to protect and limit host damage, on the other
side sustained and long-term inflammation is one of the leading causes of cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. An update on the
current knowledge of inhibitors and treatments that limit excessive inflammation in experimental and viral autoimmune myocarditis, and
therapeutic approaches to cure patients with myocarditis, are described and discussed in this review.