Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most immunoresponsive human cancers. High-dose IL-2 and Interferon-α were once the principle therapies for metastatic RCC, however they had harsh-tolerance profiles and limited response
rates. In the last decade, targeted therapies have supplanted cytokine therapy due to higher response rates and more
favorable toxicity profiles. Emerging immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 receptor and PD-L1 ligand have shown promising
results. Likewise, other novel targeted immunotherapies are currently under evaluation. The safety profiles and response
rates of new generation immunotherapies are encouraging and justify the progression of clinical trials. However,
longer follow-up data are needed to confirm these promising results. In addition, it is still unclear if an optimal sequence
or combinations of new immunotherapies paired with current targeted therapies will emerge.
Keywords: Immunotherapy, immunotargets, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer.
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