Heart failure may result from a wide variety of causes and present with varying degrees of severity. In large part patients present with varying degrees of congestion and compromised cardiac output. In this review a pathophysiologic construct is provided to guide the pharmacologic management of acute heart failure that leads to decreased congestion and improved cardiac output. Pharmacologic therapies that are used to treat chronic heart failure are also highlighted and provide the framework for transitioning from acute to preventative pharmacologic strategies.
Keywords: Cardiac output, congestion, heart failure, pediatrics, pharmacologic therapies, ventricular remodeling.
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