Few data exist on the pathophysiologic changes in pediatric heart failure. Most of the
knowledge has evolved from animal models of ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This
review addresses the pathophysiologic changes that occur in the failing heart from animal models and
the adult experience to unique aspects of heart failure in children.
Keywords: Diastolic dysfunction, heart failure, neurohormonal activation, pediatrics, systolic dysfunction,
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