Neuroscience is an emergent research field that comprises many multidisciplinary investigations, searches for
explanations about the relationship between the body and the brain. Here, we will give a little summary of this field showing the
main current findings. We discuss the lack of consistent data about the relationship among exercise for neurodegenerative
diseases and psychiatric disorders, sports performance and rehabilitation, and therefore, the difficult to describe cause-effect
associations or to describe in detail the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations.