ISSN (Print): 2405-4615
ISSN (Online): 2405-4623
Volume 6, 3 Issues, 2021
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ISSN (Print): 2405-4615
ISSN (Online): 2405-4623
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9 Abstract Ahead of Print are available electronically
11 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
Nanostructuring is the new and promising method for enhancing the properties of a wide range of
metals, alloys and their composite counterparts for a spectrum of advanced structural and functional
applications spanning the domains of both performance-critical and non-performance critical. To date, it
is well established that bulk nanostructured materials [BNMs] can be produced successfully through
microstructural refinement using severe plastic deformation [SPD], which is heavy straining of the chosen
material under conditions of high imposed pressure. Severe plastic deformation [SPD] processing is an
attractive procedure for many advanced applications as it significantly enhances the properties of wide
range of metals, alloys and their composite counterparts. Metallic materials subject to severe plastic
deformation [SPD] can possess not only an ultrafine grain (UFG) structure but also specific nano-structural
features, such as non-equilibrium grain boundaries, nano-twins, grain boundary segregation and
nanoparticles. The emergence of nanostructured materials led them to be defined as solids with grains,
sub-grains, twin or dislocation cells with sizes less than 100 nm. Such materials usually have a combination
of superior mechanical properties and physical properties to include high strength, improved corrosion
resistance and good wear resistance. Over the years, two complimentary approaches have been developed
for synthesizing nanostructured solids. The first is the “BOTTOM-UP” approach, in which the
nanostructured materials are assembled from individual atoms or from nanoscale building blocks, such as
nanoparticles. The second is the “TOP-DOWN” approach in which existing coarse grained materials are
processed to produce substantial grain refinement and nanostructure.
The most successful “TOP-DOWN” approaches involve the application of large plastic
deformation, in which the chosen material is subject to large plastic strains typically larger than 4-6. The
plastic deformation tends to refine the grains by a combination of several concurrent and competing
mechanisms to include dislocation glide, dislocation accumulation, dislocation interactions, dislocation
annihilation, tangling and spatial rearrangement. For materials with medium Stacking Fault Energy and
low Stacking Fault Energy, deformation twinning does play a significant role, especially for the grains in
the nanocrystalline size range. The details specific to microstructural evolution does tend to vary with the
following: (i) nature of chosen material, (ii) deformation mode, (iii) strain rate, and (iv) temperature. The
goal of both understanding and controlling materials at the nanoscale led to noticeable advances in
technology with tangible societal benefits. The early hype with specific reference to the benefits offered
by nanotechnology led to several meaningful applications ranging from: (i) medical instruments, (ii) to high
performance computers and data storage, (iii) to high efficiency energy conversion, and (iv) storage devices.
In the early days, news articles specific to the benefits of nanotechnology far outpaced the number of
awarded patents. However, this trend gradually reversed and successful nanotechnology patents and products now outnumber the popular “news” stories. The emergence of nanotechnology did inspire several
grand challenges listed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to be the following:
(a) Increase the five-year survival rates by 50 percent for the most difficult to treat cancers.
(b) Create devices no bigger than a grain of rice that can sense, compute and communicate with wires
and be maintenance free for at least 10 years, enabling in a revolution of “internet of things”.
(c) Create computer chips that are 100 times faster yet consume less power.
(d) Manufacture atomically precise materials with 50 times the strength of pure aluminum but at half
the weight and same cost;
(e) Reduce the cost of turning sea water into drinkable water by a factor of four, and
(f) Determine the environmental, health and safety characteristics of the chosen nanomaterial.
The objectives of this “special-issue” of the journal of “CURRENT NANOMATERIALS” being
dedicated in honor of the Chief Editor Dr. Manoj Gupta (of National University of Singapore) is to bring
together a collection of technical papers that reflect on the noticeable and commendable progress that has
been made in the domain specific to innovations, developments and applications of the family of
nanomaterials. The focus on nanoscience, nanomaterials and nanotechnology has greatly advanced both
our ability and capability to synthesize, characterize and engineer nanomaterials having a unique
combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties that are made possible by providing
constraints to the dimensions. In applications related to technology where the engineered components
must bear load, structural nanomaterials show much promise and put to use the trend/concept “smaller is
stronger”. This “special issue” of CURRENT NANOMATERIALS will bring together a collection of
papers that provide adequate information specific to state of the art developments on all aspects related to
processing, characterization and fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures for a spectrum of metals,
inter-metallic, ceramics, ceramic-matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and including the domain of
both surface coatings and high temperature coatings. The primary objective of this “special issue” is to
present important results to both the material-related community and technology-relevant community in the
form of technical papers that address aspects specific to innovations in research, development, applications,
design and technological applications. The collection of papers assembled would assist researchers,
scientists, engineer’s manufacturers and potential end-users to keep themselves abreast with new
developments in their area of specialty while concurrently making efforts to come together in an attempt to
bring forth novel innovations in technology and resultant applications. The topics of interest for inclusion
in this “special issue” of the journal of CURRENT NANOMATERIALS, but not restricted and open are
Bio-materials Additive manufacturing (AM)r
Ceramics Advanced casting
Ceramic Matrix Composites Digital manufacturing
Functionally-graded materials Forming
Intermetallic, Friction stir processing
Metals Grinding and finishing
Metal-matrix composites Machining
Superconducting materials Microwave processing
Surface coating and thin films Powder metallurgy
Welding and Joining
All technical manuscripts on the above materials and appropriate manufacturing technique chosen can make
a mention of applications in industries spanning automotive, aerospace, marine (Naval), defense,
biomedical, health care, electronics, communication, energy storage and heavy equipment to include
machinery. The collection of papers to be included in the “Special Issue” of the journal will attempt to provide a cohesively complete and compelling overview of recent developments to include innovations and
advances in the specific domain of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, concurrent advances in the
processing and characterization of these novel materials, emerging developments and potential far-reaching
applications for these materials commensurate with advances in both engineering and technology. The
“Special Issue” will in essence contain about 12 to 14 well-written and laid-out technical manuscripts. The
12 to 14 manuscripts chosen will attempt to cover a broad spectrum of the family of nanomaterials.
We certainly anticipate that this “Special Issue” on CURRENT NANOMATERIALS (CNMs) [in
honor of Dr. Manoj Gupta (National University of Singapore)] to be of valued interest to academicians,
scientists, engineers, technologists and entrepreneurs.
Electrospinning is a very simple, scalable and affordable technique, widely adopted to produce one-dimensional nanostructures
featured by cross-sectional diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers and by tunable composition, porosity
and specific surface area. It allows obtaining nanostructured materials with a large spectrum of suitably engineered physicochemical
properties to meet the requirements of a wide variety of advanced applications. For this reason, electrospun nanomaterials
have gathered great attention in a multiplicity of fields, including electronics, energy harvesting, generation and storage,
food industry, environmental protection and remediation. They have been successfully utilized to manufacture diodes, photodetectors,
field-effect transistors, electrochromic devices, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, batteries, cells for hydrogen production,
piezoelectric devices, smart packaging, protective clothing, chemical, biological and gas sensors, photocatalysts for
abatement of pollutants, cells for water treatment, membranes for ultrafiltration and oil-adsorption.
The recent advances in the electrospinning technology have promoted the exploitation of the huge potential of the electrospun
nanomaterials also in biomedicine and biotechnology. A wide range of natural and synthetic biodegradable biopolymers
can be electrospun into fibrous mats with tailored properties, such as hierarchical porosity and pore interconnectivity, fiber
morphology and alignment, mat texture. Functional additives can be incorporated into the spinnable solution to obtain composite
fibers with enhanced performance or stimuli-responsiveness. In addition, the fiber surface can be subsequently processed to
acquire further specific biochemical characteristics via the introduction of functional species. This allows obtaining polymer
matrixes consisting of randomly-oriented or aligned fibers endowed with suitable requirements for application in healthcare,
biopharmaceutics and biomedical engineering, as devices for wound dressing and healing, delivery and controlled release of
drugs and therapeutic agents, tissue regeneration and engineering.
Since its appearance in the field of biomaterials in 2001, electrospinning has been widely used in each sector of the
healthcare-related sciences. Several exhaustive review papers are available in the literature illustrating the outstanding results
and impressive advances achieved in the last years in biomedicine and biopharmaceutics.
The mini thematic issue entitled “Frontier research applications of electrospun nanomaterials in healthcare” proposes
some representative examples to highlight the recent progresses in drug delivery and wound dressing technology. A thematic
issue, alone, cannot cover the plethora of biomedical and biopharmaceutical applications for which electrospun nanomaterials
are nowadays designed and utilized. This mini thematic issue, including three contributions, merely aims at witnessing the incessant
and increasing efforts the Scientific Community devotes to move beyond the current state of the electrospun nanomaterial
technology in the field of drug delivery and wound dressing.
Poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are safe polymers very frequently utilized in the field
of drug delivery. In particular, PEG-functionalized PLGA has significantly reduced systemic clearance, which is particularly
important for the development of clinically relevant targeted therapies. The first article in the special issue by Fazio et al. 
proposes the development of two new drug delivery systems based on electrospun PEGylated-PLGA scaffolds. The scaffolds
are co-loaded with silibinin, a flavonolignan with promising anti-neoplastic effects, and two different types of nanoparticles
(Au/Ag and Fe2O3), which render PEG-PLGA-SLB systems responsive to different external stimuli. The system PEG-PLGASLB-
Au/Ag is designed to release the therapeutic agent in proximity of tumor cells under the localized photothermal effect due
to the resonant absorption of visible radiation by Au/Ag nanoparticles, whereas in the system PEG-PLGA-SLB-Fe2O3 the drug
delivery is driven by the magnetic field action. Both the optically- and magnetically-activated systems enable the effective and
controlled release of silibinin for a definite time interval in the targeted areas.
Poly(methacrylic acid), PMAA, is a biocompatible and hydrophilic material, whose carboxylic acid groups can be conjugated
with bioactive substances, such as drugs, or inorganic nanoparticles. In biomedical applications, PMAA hydrogel is often
utilized to fabricate carrier vessels for delivery of therapeutic cargoes. The second paper in the thematic issue by Neri et al. 
is focused on the development of a novel smart multi-component drug delivery system, based on stimuli-responsive PMAA-Ag
electrospun scaffolds, produced via an UV-enhanced two-step chemical bath process. The performance of the obtained scaffolds
is for the first time evaluated in the controlled release of Sorafenib, a therapeutic agent generally used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma, under the application of heat or light radiation with wavelength close to the Ag surface plasmon resonance.
The evaluation tests lead to interesting preliminary results.
Electrospun nanofibrous mats are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix in tissues, composed of fibrillar collagen. In
particular, polyaniline/chitosan (PANI/CS) electrospun composite dressings are able to promote proliferation of human fibroblasts,
potentially leading to the growth of new skin in wounds. They combine the inherent conductivity of PANI and antibacterial,
antifungal, mucoadhesive, haemostatic and immunological properties of CS, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin. The
third paper in the thematic issue by Moutsatsou et al.  deals with PANI/CS dressings and the evaluation of their antibacterial
properties against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively.
High PANI content in the PANI/CS blend utilized to spin the mats are found to result in increased bactericidal activity against
both infective agents.
It is my hope that the papers in this mini thematic issue will represent an interesting addition to the existing literature, serving
and inspiring all Readers.
I would like to express my gratitude to all the Authors for their enthusiastic participation. A special thank-you to all the Reviewers
for their valuable contribution in improving the submitted papers.
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With the advent of modern technologies coupled with nanomaterials in the semiconductor industry, ample advancement in
the area of optoelectronics and energy storage gadgets is on board. In this era of technology, the advanced optoelectronic devices
have become an integral part of human daily activities. The use of nanomaterials can be seen in everyday life such as
sensing devices, batteries, supercapacitors and solar energy materials. In order to address the energy crisis of the world, one has
to address the “Terawatt challenge” as coined by Richard Smalley, the Nobel Prize winner in 1996 [1-3]. Vesborg et al. reported
that not only the performance of material is important but also the selection of “right material” is critical to utilize the
idea/device on an industrial scale . This special issue on “Nanomaterials for Optoelectronics Energy Storage Applications”
comprises dedicated reviews as well as a research article. The issue covers the experimental as well as the theoretical manuscripts
in the area of interest.
Ahmad et al.  provided an insight into the Recent Advancements in Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of NiO Nanostructures
and their Supercapacitor Properties. Haq et al.  discussed the Electronic and Optical Properties of Various Polymorphs
of ZnO for designing optoelectronic devices. Akram et al.  provided a timely review on the topic of Mixed Metal Oxide
Composites: Synthesis and Energy Storage Related Applications. I am thankful to all the experts for their contribution to this
special issue of Current Nanomaterials. Special thanks to the worthy reviewers for their valuable insight and critical reading of
the manuscripts which helped to improve this special issue greatly. I would like to thank the Editor in Chief (EIC) and Editorial
team for their constant support and help throughout the processing of this thematic issue.
Nanomedicine is basically the application of nanotechnologies in a healthcare setting to improve the behaviour of drug substances.
Today, nanomedicines are used worldwide to improve the treatments and lives of patients suffering from a range of
disorders. The nanomedicines currently available are overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by normal medical approaches.
Nanomedicines, therefore, can play an important role in ensuring that drug stays in the body for long periods and is
targeted specifically to the areas that need treatment. Another important area of nanotechnology/nanomedicine is diagnostics.
By studying and identifying individual molecules, it is possible to diagnose disease in time to improve the prognosis for the
patient. The potential scope of nanomedicine is broad, and is expected to be eventually involve all aspects of medicine. Over
the coming years, the benefits of nanomedicines and new diagnostic tools will be felt by an increasing number of patients with
considerable impact on global health.
Purva Thatai and Bharti Sapra in “In vitro and ex vivo antifungal potential of formulations containing terbinafine hydrochloride
against Candida albicans” showed the in vitro antifungal activity of the developed formulations determined by cup and
plate method using Candida albicans. The in vivo investigations involved histological and culture recovery studies after treating
the infected animals with different formulations. The results of in vitro studies were found to be in consonance with the
findings of in vivo results, which further elucidates the potential of both the developed formulations in the management of onychomycosis.
Sunil Khatak and Harish Dureja in “Structural composition of solid lipid nanoparticles for invasive and non–
invasive drug delivery” discussed that lipid nanoparticles are able to promote the site of effective delivery, improve bioavailability
with minimizing absorption variability in GIT. The SLNs have various advantages over traditional dosage forms such as
drug protection and decrease the danger of acute and chronic toxicity. The selection of structural components for SLNs has a
significant impact on the development of new therapeutic, diagnostic, and/or theranostic approaches. Canchi et al. in “Design
and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles of pioglitazone hydrochloride and study the effect of formulation variables using
QbD approach” prepared and characterized the polymeric nanoparticles of Pioglitazone using ɛ-polycaprolactone and studied
the effect of various formulation parameters on nanoparticles characteristics. Drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles were
produced by nanoprecipitation method, using PCL polymer and pluronic as surfactant. Various process and formulation parameters
such as rate and time of stirring, polymer content, surfactant concentration, drug loading were optimized using the
factorial design (QbD) approach and reported that polymer-surfactant ratio plays an important role in the design of nanostructure.
I want to express my sincere gratitude and appreciations to all who kindly contributed, patiently waited for the peerreviewed,
and revised the manuscripts for this special issue to sustain the high quality of this journal. I sincerely acknowledge
the editorial board’s productive and appropriate reviews and all the support to publish this special issue. I owe special thanks to
Mr. Sarosh Alam for untiring hard work to make the publication of this special issue possible. I hope that all of you will enjoy
reading this mini thematic issue.
Nanotechnology is one of the state-of-the-art research areas in the field of engineering. Nanomaterial is being used in several
fields of engineering research owing to their exceptional chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. One of the applications
of nanotechnology is Nano medicine which ranges from targeted drug delivery through nanomaterial to Nano electronic
biosensors. Nano fluidics for efficient heat transfer is another major research area. Nanomaterial integrated MEMS based sensor
is also drawing attention of researchers all over the world. Nano composites are already used commercially in various sport
products such as tennis racket, bicycles etc. Nanotechnology is being used for fabricating flexible electronic circuit and wearable
conductive fabrics. Fuel cells, solar cells and batteries are some of the other major areas where nanotechnology is being
useful. More researches are being carried out using nanomaterial in the field of optics, bio and environmental engineering. The
main objective of this thematic issue is to present current researches related to nanomaterial. The title of this thematic issue is
“Advanced nanomaterial synthesis and their applications for engineering research”. The main topics that have been covered
under this issue are as follows,
1. Nano material synthesis and characterization
2. Application of Nanomaterials for manufacturing processes.
Dr. Yose et al.  contributed to this issue by reporting his study on the improvement of mechanical property of Polyacitic
Acid by blending it with blended with thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and then filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Prof.
Ibrahim et al.  contributed a research article on the study of Nano-encapsulation of Proteins and Peptides. Finally, Prof.
Yeakub et al. contributed a  research paper discussing the application of nano fluid as a dielectric medium on machining of
Zirconia by Micro Electro Discharge Machining process. I take this opportunity to thank all the researchers for contributing to
this special issue of the journal. I would also like to thank all the reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscripts. I
would like to thank the Editor in Chief (EIC) for accepting the proposal of this thematic issue.