Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the second frequent cancer of the esophagus. Barrett’s esophagus
(BE) takes precedence over EAC. BE is a metaplastic change of the stratified squamous epithelium to the intestinal
columnar epithelium due to the acidic gastrointestinal reflux. Further, the disease takes the hyperplastic stage followed
by EAC. An initial immune response is an essential reaction of a body to an occurrence of alien/modified
cells to be removed. It has been appreciated that an inflammatory reaction occurs in the early stages of EAC or
even in BE. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in a frontier of an immune response due to their advanced ability to recognize foreign
antigens and mobilize naive T cells to effectors. However, in a cancer condition, tumor-delivered immunosuppression occurs in a variety
of mechanisms that alter/switch the functionality of DCs from immune activating to immune suppressive cells. In this brief review, we
consider tumor-induced paths of a capacity of tumor cells to down-regulate DCs, with a focus on EAC, and also discuss a possibility to
use DCs for immunotherapeutic approaches. Indeed, DCs represent a promising tool for developing new immunotherapeutic approaches
for cancer treatment including EAC. It has been reported to achieve effective DC-mediated immune responses by raising anti-tumor cytotoxic
T cell responses against multiple cancer antigens through loading DCs with total tumor RNA. However, more studies should be performed
in order to understand a precise role in tumor-induced mechanisms of DC suppression in BE/EAC. Likely, these mechanisms
should involve general carcinogenic and EAC-specific pathways.
Keywords: Dendritic cells, immune reactions, inflammation, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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