Biomarkers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Natural Products as Complementary Alternative Medicine

Author(s): Jonatas Zeni Klafke, Fernando Garcez Porto, Amanda Spring de Almeida, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Gabriela Trevisan, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 3 , 2016

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Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are considered the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases in the world. In addition, about 20% of first and recurrent acute myocardial infarctions (MI) are silent. In this context, subclinical atherosclerosis culminates in evident CVD, through the evolution of early risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and others. The main problem in CVD is related to the long-time between the start of the subclinical atherosclerosis and the manifestation of the disease. The identification of subjects at risk of such events is obviously substantial, since identification leads to implementation and compliance with effective preventive measures that reduce such risk. In this sense, this review demonstrates biomarkers as an alternative to early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. One of the proposed biomarkers is the Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), being considered a promising biochemical biomarker for atherosclerotic conditions. Another marker that is gaining strength and is associated with the IMA are the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), its measurement provides information on the level of exposure to potentially harmful changes to proteins and metabolic control. And last but not least we have nitric oxide as an early marker mainly related to endothelial dysfunction. In this review also is evidenced the use of the Campomanesia xanthocarpa, a plant native to southern region from Brazil extensively used as complementary and alternative medicine, and natural products to reduce protein oxidation and improve the availability of nitric oxide and consequently vascular function, reducing the risk for development of CVD.

Keywords: Advanced oxidation protein products, Campomanesia xanthocarpa, cardiovascular diseases, ischemia-modified albumin, medicinal plant, nitric oxide.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2016
Page: [372 - 382]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666151112151035
Price: $65

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