Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) has been increasingly used with expanding
indications in patients with cardiac diseases. There is substantial evidence to suggest of their role in
improving outcomes in patients with and without heart failure. Complications of the device implantation
including infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and also substantial financial
burden to the society. Several clinical characteristics have been recognized as risk factors for the occurrence of the
infections. Considering that infections occur in the presence of multiple risk factors acting together, scoring systems have
been developed in identifying patients at risk. Despite preventive measures, the rates of infections associated with CIEDs
have increased over the last decade. Recent studies have documented the role of implantable antibiotic eluting pouches in
reducing infections in patients undergoing CIED implantation. The present review will address the risk scoring systems
studied and also address the role of antibiotic pouch and the recent patents in developing this technology.
Keywords: Antibiotic, cardiovascular, cardiac implantable electronic device, cardiac diseases, epidemiology, infections.
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