The NADPH oxidases (NOX) represent a family of 7 related transmembrane enzymes that share a basic
structural paradigm and the common ability to utilize NADPH to synthesize superoxide and other reactive oxygen
species (ROS). NOX isoforms are distinguished from each other by their amino acid sequences, expression levels
in different cell types, the mechanisms of enzyme activation and the type of ROS that are generated. NOX5 was the
last NOX family member to be identified and in the past decade and a half we have gained significant insights into
how NOX5 produces ROS, the cell types where it is expressed and the functional significance of NOX5 in health
and disease. The objective of this review is to highlight accumulated and recent knowledge of the genetic and enzymatic
regulation of NOX5 and the importance of NOX5 in human physiology and pathophysiology.
Keywords: NOX5, NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species, post-translational regulation, genetic regulation, significance, review.
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