Mosquito-borne diseases, transmitted by mosquito vectors, continue to cause illness
and death in many areas of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries.
One of the control measures of these diseases has been contingent on mosquito vector control
using synthetic chemical insecticides. Due to environmental health concerns of synthetic insecticides
and the rise of resistance to synthetic insecticides in mosquitoes, eco-friendly and
easily biodegradable natural plant compounds that are potential insecticides are imperative
for mosquito vector control and management. Over past decades, searches for insecticidal
phytochemicals against mosquitoes have provided a wealth of bioactive insecticidal compounds
with various types of chemical structures. This paper provides an overview of compounds
from plant sources that are grouped into chemical structural groups containing potential
mosquitocidal activities. Each of these groups comprises individual core structure together with large numbers
of derivatives. Relationships of chemical structures and toxicities of each compound group and derivatives
are highlighted. Natural plant products conferring synergistic activities on cell-based assays with pyrethroid toxicity
in relation to their chemical structures are described. Understanding of relationships of bioactive compounds
of plant origin belonging to different classes of chemical structures and their activities could be beneficial for effective
mosquito vector control measures.
Keywords: Natural products, mosquitocides, phytochemical structures, structure-activity, synergism, mosquito vectors.
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