In the morbidity structure of Russian adult population respiratory disorders are second only
to circulatory system diseases. Point prevalence of respiratory diseases was registered at 38,945 per
100,000 people in 2013. 4% of all deaths annually in Russia are due to the respiratory pathology. Risk
factors are numerous but principal among them are infections, workplace conditions, environmental
pollution, behavioral patterns and socio-economic status. Occupational disease identification in Russia
is based on combined efforts of 2 branches – physicians from departments or clinics of occupational
diseases and governmental occupational hygienists. These two branches differ in educational
background, as well as tasks performed, which could lead to hampered communication and interactions. Occupational
respiratory diseases (ORD) are vastly underdiagnosed, with ORD incidence varying at 0.4–0.5 per 10,000 workers.
Statistical reports show that while proportion of workers employed in hazardous and (or) dangerous working conditions
increases, the rate of occupational diseases actually decreases, which can be explained by ineffective monitoring.
Multidisciplinary occupational health services are strongly in need. COPD and chronic bronchitis are the most prevalent
among the ORD followed by pneumoconioses, infection diseases, asthma, upper respiratory disorders and tumors.
Pneumoconiosis morbidity tends to lower in recent years and severe silicosis cases are diagnosed rarely, although new
types of the interstitial lung diseases have emerged, such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic fibrotic alveolitis. Hypersensitivity
pneumonites are becoming more frequent as well. Among causative factors of occupational respiratory pathology in
Russian population the most prevalent are aerosols, chemicals, biological hazards, and voice load.