Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin,
or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. WHO projects that diabetes death will be
doubled between 2005 and 2030, where 347 million people worldwide had diabetes as per the report of 2013. The
increase in the prevalence of diabetes is due to three influences - lifestyle, ethnicity, and age.
Methods: The present review summarizes the pharmacokinetic parameters and challenges in the field of nanoparticles
and nanoliposomes of insulin and other antidiabetic drugs given through pulmonary route to treat diabetes effectively.
Results: Current challenges in diabetes management include optimizing the use of the already available therapies
to ensure adequate glycemic condition, blood pressure, lipid control and to reduce complications. At present, several
pieces of research have been focusing on new management options for diabetes. Among these options, the use
of nanomedicine is becoming an eye catching and most promising one. Currently, nanoparticles and nanoliposomes are thrust areas of research
to treat any deadly disease like diabetes. These drug delivery systems ultimately result in longer circulation half-lives, improved
drug pharmacokinetics, and reduced side effects of therapeutically active substances that may be insulin and non-insulin.
Conclusions: Thus, the pulmonary route is the most promising alternative route of drug delivery since it is non-invasive and lungs have a
large surface area, richly supplied by the capillary network, for absorption of drugs.