Obesity, Physical Activity and Fitness During Growth
Pp. 231-295 (65)
Due to health risks resulting from obesity and reduced metabolic and
cardiorespiratory fitness, an increasing attention has been focusing on physical activity
(PA). Its reduction - sedentarism has been considered as one of the most important
causes of overweight and obesity, especially when it appears early in life. - Obesity
during growth is characterized by temporarily accelerated growth in height, increased
amount and changed distribution of adipose tissue (mainly on the trunk), reduced
physical fitness (PF; especially aerobic, cardiorespiratory one), skill, endurance and
motor development. This situation decreases even more PA, resulting in further
increasing adiposity and obesity prevalence. Present or later development of metabolic
syndrom, cardiovascular diseases, orthopedic and psychological problems can
accompany early start of increased adiposity. Various approaches starting with a
monitored diet have been suggested and elaborated for intervention, obesity treatment
and prevention, with the emphasis on régimes with increased PA and special exercise.
Best results with regard to BMI and fat reduction along with increased PF and
reduction of metabolic disorders in specialized pediatric centers and summer camps
with adequate control and guiding by physical education pedagogues and nutrition
specialists have been achieved; however, positive results of these interventions have
been mostly only temporary. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to a permanent régime
of both increased PA and monitored diet without interruption, which always increases
adiposity and reduces PF. In such a case it is recommendable to repeat interventions
more times. However, as best management of obesity during growth, an early
intervention and prevention using natural factors as an optimal PA régime along with
monitored adequate diet are suggested and elaborated.
Adiposity, Adolescents, Aerobic power, Body composition, Children,
Diet, Exercise, Fat distribution, Functional capacity, Motor abilities, Muscle
strength, Musculoskeletal problems, Nutrition, Overweight, Obesity, Physical activity (PA), Physical fitness (PF), Prevention, Treatment.
Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Národní 8., Prague 1, 11694 Czech Republic.