Physical Activity, Fitness, Nutrition and Obesity During Growth

Secular Changes of Growth, Body Composition and Functional Capacity in Children and Adolescents in Different Environment

Indexed in: EBSCO.

An imbalance between high energy intake – due to inadequate diet – and reduced energy expenditure – caused by sedentary habits – is believed to create an inherent risk of obesity among ...
[view complete introduction]

US $
15

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)



Obesity, Physical Activity and Fitness During Growth

Pp. 231-295 (65)

Jana Pařízková

Abstract

Due to health risks resulting from obesity and reduced metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness, an increasing attention has been focusing on physical activity (PA). Its reduction - sedentarism has been considered as one of the most important causes of overweight and obesity, especially when it appears early in life. - Obesity during growth is characterized by temporarily accelerated growth in height, increased amount and changed distribution of adipose tissue (mainly on the trunk), reduced physical fitness (PF; especially aerobic, cardiorespiratory one), skill, endurance and motor development. This situation decreases even more PA, resulting in further increasing adiposity and obesity prevalence. Present or later development of metabolic syndrom, cardiovascular diseases, orthopedic and psychological problems can accompany early start of increased adiposity. Various approaches starting with a monitored diet have been suggested and elaborated for intervention, obesity treatment and prevention, with the emphasis on régimes with increased PA and special exercise. Best results with regard to BMI and fat reduction along with increased PF and reduction of metabolic disorders in specialized pediatric centers and summer camps with adequate control and guiding by physical education pedagogues and nutrition specialists have been achieved; however, positive results of these interventions have been mostly only temporary. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to a permanent régime of both increased PA and monitored diet without interruption, which always increases adiposity and reduces PF. In such a case it is recommendable to repeat interventions more times. However, as best management of obesity during growth, an early intervention and prevention using natural factors as an optimal PA régime along with monitored adequate diet are suggested and elaborated.

Keywords:

Adiposity, Adolescents, Aerobic power, Body composition, Children, Diet, Exercise, Fat distribution, Functional capacity, Motor abilities, Muscle strength, Musculoskeletal problems, Nutrition, Overweight, Obesity, Physical activity (PA), Physical fitness (PF), Prevention, Treatment.

Affiliation:

Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Národní 8., Prague 1, 11694 Czech Republic.