Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and there is extensive research
on the pathophysiology of all its clinical entities. Despite the big array of possible therapeutic
modalities for cardiovascular disease, there is still a big necessity to develop novel treatments that will
augment our strategies for tackling the burden of cardiovascular disease and decrease morbidity and
mortality. A major player in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system is
calcium. Extracellular calcium is required in order to initiate cardiac muscle contraction and promote
the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A lot of molecules
and structures that in a direct or indirect way interact with calcium are being studied and there is a constant flow of new
information that is emerging. In this review we focus on some of these calcium metabolism modulators representatives
such as SERCA2a, RyR2, S100A1, phosholamban and calcineurin. We emphasize on their mechanism of action, their role
in cardiovascular disease and potential therapeutic implications. We also focus on the effect the bisphosphonates might
have in regression of the calcium deposition in the human arteries as well as the usage of novel biomarkers such as mircoRNAs
in calcium metabolism modulation in heart disease.
Keywords: Calcium, Ca2+, modulators, cardiovascular disease, therapeutic implications, bisphosphonates.
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