In this review, Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been focused as a novel molecular target for potential treatment of gliomas. The properties of NRP-1 were described briefly. The role of NRP-1 in gliomas was explored in details, including relationships of NRP-1 expression and glioma prognosis, Sema3A-NRP-1 signaling in gliomas, NRP-1 signaling and VEGF/VEGFR、PlGF、TGF-β、PDGF、LD22-4 of FGF2、autocrine of HGF/SF、p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation and integrin-associated tumor microenvironment in gliomas, NRP-1 intracellular trafficking, NRP-1 and glioma stem-like cells, as well as magnetic nanoparticles related to targeting gliomas. NRP-1, a multifunctional-receptors protein, would mediate diverse cellular signaling pathways in gliomas, and might potentially act as a novel therapeutic target. In future, magnetic nanoparticles coated with NRP-1 may play a vital role on diagnosis and therapy of gliomas.